Chuka University


Prof. Zachary M. Getenga

Professor of Analytical/Industrial/Environmental Chemistry

 Academic Publications

1.  Boniface Mbithi Muendo,  Zachary Moranga Getenga, Joseph Owuor Lalah, Shem Oyoo Wandiga, Michael Rothballer, Ulrike  Dorfler (2016).  The bioremediation potential of two  Bacillus  spp. isolated from diuron contaminated sugarcane and pineapple-cultivated soils in Kenya. Submitted to the Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.

2.  Boniface Mbithi Muendo,  Zachary Moranga Getenga, Joseph Owuor Lalah, Shem Oyoo Wandiga, Michael Rothballer, Ulrike Dorfler (2016).  Hexazinon degradation by a Bacillus sp. And Staphylococcus  sp.  Isolated from pineapple and sugarcane cultivated soils in Kenya.  Submitted  to  Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry.

3.  Nischwitz, V., S. Zor, R. Mogwasi, Z. Getenga and D.K. Kariuki (2016). First comprehensive study on total contents and hot water extractable fractions of selected elements in 19 medicinal plants from various locations in Nyamira County, Kenya. Accepted by the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology.

4.  Jemutai Kimosop S., Getenga Z. M., Orata F.O., Okello V.A. and cheruiyot J.K. (2006). The Levels and Discharge Loads of Antibiotics in Wastewater Treatment Plants and Hospital Lagoons within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya (2016). Accepted by Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 3

5.  Gershom Kyalo Mutua, Anastasiah Njoki Ngigi and Zachary Moranga Getenga (2016 ).Degradation Characteristics of Metribuzin in Soils within Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry.

6.  Ongulu Roselyn, Kituyi John and Getenga Zachary (2015). Assessment of the pollution impact in the Winam Gulf. Inter. Jour. of Scientific and Engineerin g Research 6(10): 1374-1386.

7.  Ongulu, R.A., Kituyi, J.L. and Getenga Z.M. (2015). Biosorption of Pb 2+ and Cr 2+ using Moringa oleifera and their adsorption isotherms. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry 3(6): 100-108.

8.  Daniel O. Onunga, Isaac O. Kowino, Anastasiah N. Ngigi, Aggrey Osogo, Francis Orata, Zachary M. Getenga and Hassan Were (2015). Biodegradation of Carbofuran in soils within Nzoia River basin, Kenya. J. of Environ. Sci. and Health part B: Pesticides, Food contaminants and Agricultural wastes 50 (6): 387-397, DOI: 10.1080/03601234.2015.1011965.

9.  Gershom Kyalo-Mutua, Anastasiah Ngigi and Zachary Getenga (2015). Study of Chlorpyrifos in soils with different treatment regimes within the Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 94(3):387-392 . (DOI) 10.1007/s00128-015-1465-0.

10.  Selly Jemutai-Kimosop, Francis Orata, Isaac Odhiambo K’owino and Zachary Getenga (2014). The dissipation behavior of carbofuran in two soils differeing in prior exposure to carbofuran within Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 92(5):616-620.

11.  Anastasiah Ngigi, Zachary Getenga, Hamadi Boga, Paul Ndalut (2014). Biodegradation of hexazinone by Enterobacter cloacae sp.from long-term treated sugarcase-cultivated soils in Kenya soils. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.92(3):364-368.

12.  Caroline Onyancha and Zachary Getenga (2013). Geochemistry of groundwater in the Volcanic Rocks of Nairobi. Global journal of Science Frontier Research Environment and Earth Science Online ISSN 2249-4626&print ISSN 0975-5896.

13.  Richard Mogwasi, Zachary Getenga, Nyambaka Hudson, Ruth Wanjau, Jane Murungi, Enock Okiambei, Evans Onyancha (2013). Comparison of lead levels with calcium, zinc, and phosphorus levels in human blood.  Global Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research. 1(1), 44-59.

14.  Richard Mogwasi, Benuel Mogaka, Enock Okiambe, Hudson Nyambaka, Jane Murungi, Zachary Getenga, Enock Amboga, Evans Onyancha, Samuel Abuga and Evans Kenanda (20 13) Effect of occupation on the levels of lead in human blood in Kenya. Chemistry and Materials Research 3(4) ISSN 2224-3224.

15.  Anastasiah Ngige, Zachary M. Getenga, Ulrike Doerfler, Hamadi I. Boga, Benson Kuria, Paul Ndalut, Reiner Schroll (2013).  Effects of carbon amendment on in situ atrazine degradation and total microbial biomass. J Environ Sci Health Part B.  48, 40–48 DOI: 10.1080/03601234.2012.716727

16.  Richard Mogwasi, Hudson Nyambaka, Jane Murungi, Zachary Getenga, Lydia Kimoro, Enock Okumbe, Benuel Nyagaka (2012) Effect of environmental exposure on the lead levels in human blood in Kenya. J. Environ Earth 2(10).

17.  Boniface M. Muendo, Joseph O. Lalah, Zachary M. Getenga (2012). Behaviour of pesticide residues in agricultural soil and adjacent River Kuywa sediment and water samples from Nzoia sugarcane belt in Kenya. The Environmentalist DO110.1007/s10669-012-9407-4.

18.  Selly Jemutai Kimosop, Francis Orata, Zachary M. Getenga (2012).The Influence of Filter Mud Compost and Tithonia diversifolia Leaves on the Dissipation of Diuron in Soils within the Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 89: 328-333.

19.   Anastasiah Ngigi, Zachary Getenga, Hamadi Boga, Paul Ndalut (2012). Biodegradation of s-triazine herbicide atrazine by Enterobacter cloacae and Burkholderia cepacia sp. from long-term treated sugarcane-cultivated soils in Kenya. J Environ Sci Health Part B. 47(8):769-778.4

20.  Ngigi, A., Getenga, Z., Boga, H., Ndalut, P. (2011). Biodegradation of phenylurea herbicide Diuron by microorganisms from long-term treated sugarcane-cultivated soils in Kenya.Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 93(8): 1623-1635. DOI: 1080/02772248.2011.595718.

21.  Simon Onywere,  Zachary Getenga, Shadrack Mwakalila, Charles Twesigye, Josephine Nakiranda (2011) The Challenge of  Settlement in the Budalangi Area of Nzoia River Drainage Basin: Policy Change Perspective and Using Remote Sensing Data. Open Environ. Eng. Jour. 4: 97- 104.

22.  S.C. Lagat, J.O. Lalah, C.O.Kowenje, Z. M. Getenga (2011). Metribuzin mobility in soil column as affected by environmental and physicochemical parameters in Mumias sugarcane zone, Kenya. APRN jour. Agr. Biol. Sci. 6:27-33.

23. Charles K. Twesigye,  Simon M. Onywere,  Zachary M. Getenga, Shadrack S. Mwakalila, S. Josephine, K. Nakiranda (2011). The impact of  land use activities on vegetation cover and water quality in the lake Victoria watershed (2011). The Open Environ. Eng. Jour. 4:66-77.

24.  Silas C. Lagat,  Joseph O. Lalah, chrispine O. Kowenje,  Zachary M. Getenga, Richard Chepkui (20011). Mtribuzin sorption dynamics in acid soils of Nzoia sugarcane zone in Western Kenya. Int.J. disaster manag. risk reduction 3(2):64-72.

25.  Ngigi, A., Doerfler, U., Scherb, H.,  Getenga, Z.,  Boga, H., Schroll, R. (2011). Effect of fluctuating soil humidity on in situ bioavailability and degradation of atrazine. Chemosphere 84 (4): 369-375.

26.  Ngigi, A., Doerfler, U., Scherb, H.,  Getenga, Z.,  Boga, H., Schroll, R. (2011). Effect of fluctuating soil humidity on in situ bioavailability and degradation of atrazine. Chemosphere 84 (4): 369-375.

27.  Ndege, T.M.,  Getenga, Z.M.,  Nyongesa, H., Chacha, S. (2010). Social value formation and switching to Tithonia in Nzoia River drainage basin (NRDB), Kenya. Global Business and Economic anthology 11(2):128-136.

28.  Lalah J.O., Muendo B.M.,  Getenga, Z.M.  (2009). The dissipation of hexazinone in tropical soils under semi-controlled field conditions in Kenya. J Environ Sci Health 44(7), 690-696.

29.  Getenga, Z.,  Ulrike Doerfler, Azuka Iwobi, Michael Schmid and  Reiner Schroll (2009).    Isolation and Characterization of Atrazine-  and Terbuthylazine-Mineralizing  Arthrobacter  GZK-1  species from Soil in Sugarcane-Cultivated Fields in Kenya. Chemosphere 77(3), 534-539.

30.   Getenga, Z. M., U. Doerfler and R. Schroll (2009).  Laboratory degradation studies of 14

C-atrazine –isoproturon in soil from sugarcane cultivated fields under Kenyan tropical conditions. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 82:678-682.

31.  Getenga, Z. M., Doerfler, U. and Schroll, R.  (2009). Study of atrazine degradation in soil from Kenyan sugarcane-cultivated fields in controlled laboratory conditions.  Toxicol Environ chem. 91(2): 195-207.

32.  Onywere, S.M.,  Getenga, Z.M., Mwakalila, S.S., Twesigye, C.K. and Nakiranda, J.K. (2009). Potential of satellite imagery, policy and institutional frameworks in addressing sustainable utilization and management of watershed resources in Lake Victoria basin in “ Lake Victoria Research Initiative proceedings” Eds (Banadda N., Isabirye, P., Onywere, S., Nampala, P. and Tenywa, J.S.) . ISSN2078-5933.

33.  Twesigye, C. K., Onywere, S. M., Nakiranda, J.K., Mwakalila, S.S., Getenga, Z.M. (2007). The potential of satellite imagery and policy framework in ddressing Sustainable Management of Watershed Resources of the Lake Victoria basin.  The Uganda journal 51:74-85. 17.

34.   Getenga, Z.M., madadi, V. , Wandiga, S. O. (2004).  Studies on biodegradation of 2,4-D and metribuzin herbicides in soil under controlled conditions. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 72/3:504 - 513.

35.  Getenga, Z.M., Dorfler, U., Reiner, S. and Sabine K. (2004). Determination of a suitable sterilization method for soil in biodegradation studies of isoproturon herbicide. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  72/2: 415-421. 

36.  Getenga, Z.M.,  Wandiga, S.O. and Kengara, F.O.  (2004). Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in soil and water from river Nyando drainage system within lake Victoria basin in Kenya. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  72/2:335-343. 5

37.  Getenga, Z.M.,  Keng’ara, F. (2004).  Mineralization of Glyphosate herbicide in compost-mended soil under controlled conditions. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 72/2: 266-275.

38.   Getenga, Z.M.  (2003). Enhanced mineralization of Atrazine herbicide in compost-amended soil in Laboratory studies. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 71/5:933-941.

39.   Wandiga, S.O., Getenga, Z.M., Lalah, J. O., Kaigwara, P.N. and Mghenyi, J.M.  (2001). The Major environmental factors that influence rapid disappearance of pesticides from tropical soils in Kenya. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 81: 161-197.

40.   Getenga Z. M.,  Jondiko J. I. O., Wandiga S. O. and Beck E. (2000). Dissipation behaviour of malathion and dimethoate insecticide residues from the soil and their uptake by garden pea plant (Pisum Sativum). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 64: 359-367.

41.  Getenga Z. M.,  Jondiko J. I. O. and Wandiga S. O. (2000). Dissipation and degradation of malathion insecticide in soil under tropical conditions. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 77: 229-240.

42.  Getenga Z. M., Jondiko J. I. O., Wandiga S. O. and Beck E. (2000). Dissipation behaviour of malathion and dimethoate insecticides from garden pea plant (Pisum Sativum) under controlled conditions. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 77:219-228.

43.  Getenga Z. M., Kamau, G. N. and Alla-Eldin Nassar E. (1994). Effects of coagulants and extent of colour removal from textile effluent. International. Journal of BioChemiPhysics 3: 51-56. Publications in the Books of Proceedings

Publications in the Books of Proceedings

Onywere, S. M.,  Getenga Z. M.,  Baraza, W., Mwakalila, M., Twesigye, C., Nakiranda, (2007). Intensification of Agriculture as the Driving Force in the Degradation of Nzoia River Basin: the Challenges of Watershed Management.  Abstract volume  of the proceedings of the Lake Abaya Research Symposium 2007 (LARS 2007) on Catchment and Lakes Research. May 7-11th 2007–Arba Minch, Ethiopia.  FWU Water Resources Publications Volume No:   06 / 2007

Twesigye C. K., Nakiranda, K, Onywere S. M.,  Getenga Z. M., Mwakalila (2006). Integrated Management Options  for Sustainable Development of the Nakivubo Wetland Complex, Kampala. Proceedings of the Kenya DAAD Scholars Association (KDSA) Regional Conference on the Principle of Sustainability - A Multidisciplinary View 30th November - 1st December 2006, Nairobi, Kenya.

Onywere, S. M., Z. Getenga, S. Mwakalila, C. Twesigye and J. Nakiranda (2005). Watershed Degradation Analysis of Nzoia River Drainage Basin from a Policy Change Perspective and Using Remote Sensing  Data.  Proceedings of the 11th World Lake Conference on Management of Lake Basins for their Sustainable Use: Global Experiences and African Issues. Nairobi, Kenya. 30th Oct. to 4th Nov. 2005.  pp 451-458

Onywere, S. M., Getenga Z. M., Mwakalila, M., Twesigye, C., Nakiranda, J., Kirui, I. Letema, S. (2005).  The  Challenges of Rural Poverty Reduction in the River Nzoia Basin, Kenya: the Role of Research for Development in Achieving the MDGs.  Presentation to the Regional Conference on the Role of African Universities in the Attainment of MDGs, 14th – 18th November 2005, Nairobi, Kenya

Onywere, S. M., Getenga Z. M., Mwakalila, M., Twesigye, C., Nakiranda, J.(2005). Rapid Population Growth, Urbanization and Implications on the Wetlands and Water Resources with Special Emphasis on Nzoia River, Nakivubo Channel and Simiyu River basin.  Keynote address to the 3rd Uganda Society Science Conference on “Conserving Water, Wildlife, Wetlands and Agro-biodiversity for Sustainable Development in the 

Articles reviewed

Biodegradation Journal

Isolation and characterization of a heavy-metal resisting phenanthrane -degrader Sphingobium sp. in a two –liquid phase bioreactor (TLPB). 6

African journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Simultaneous determination of Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in a tablet dosage form by liquid chromatography.

Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture

Ovicidal effect of some insecticides for Bruchus pisi L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)Trends in Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (TSPN)Responses of Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to Soil Injected Liquid AmmoniumNutrition and Growth Temperatures

Journal of Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry

Determination of some synthetic active substances in soil sample by mechanical stirring assisted extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Studies on the fate of ready - mix formulation of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Tea Determination of terminal residues of metamifop herbicide in sandy clay loam soil under direct seeded rice

Analysis of Moss and Topsoil to Monitor Heavy Metal Emissions from a Pulp and Paper Mill in Western Kenya

Influence of endosulfan on microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities of a tropical coastal sandy soil. Persistence study of clopyralid herbicide in subtropical soil.

Journal of Hazardous Materials

PAHs biodegradation potential of indigenous consortia from agricultural soil and contaminated soil in two  - liquid phase bioreactor (TLPB).

Journal of Environmental Sciences

Synergistic Degradation of High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Co-cultures of bacteria and fungi.

Effects of culture conditions on ligninolytic enzymes and protease production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in air.

Is autoclaving always an efficient sterilization method for PAHs degradation studies?

Screening, degrading characteristics and bacterial dynamics of a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium from contaminated soil.

Organochlorine pesticides accumulated by SPMD-based virtual organisms and feral fish in Three Gorges Reservoir, China


Enzyme Activities in Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-Polluted Soils

Sorption and Leaching potential of isoproturon and atrazine in low organic carbon soil of Pakistan under a wheat- maize rotation

International Food Research Journal

Nutrient variation in coloured varieties of Ipomea batatas grown in Vihiga County, western Kenya.

Examination of theses

2015: MSc. Thesis “Rapid identification of edible oils manufactured in Kenya” by Linda Wangechi Maina University of Nairobi.

2015:  MSc. Thesis “Investigation of Mutagenicity of solar disinfected (SODIS) water” by Ms. Annah Moraa Kerandi ,University of Nairobi.

2012: MSc. Thesis “Investigation of heavy metals in vegetables and soils in the agricultural and industrial areas of Mumias and Webuye, Kenya” by Anthony Masika  Pembere), University of Nairobi.

2010: MSc. Thesis “Contribution of Mumias Sugar Company to Pollution Loading in River Nzoia, Western Kenya” by Akali Ngaywa Moses at MMUST (internal examiner).

2010: M.Sc. thesis entitled “Assessment of polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and soil from Nairobi” by Ms Dorice Soita Situma (I56/8014/2006), University of Nairobi.

2003: MSc. Thesis entitled “The impact of SONY sugar factory effluents on the pollution status of river Sare, Kenya” by a candidate from Egerton University.

Students who have graduated;

Ph.D. research work by Ongulu Roselyn Adhiambo (SC/D.PHIL/015/09) at Eldoret University of Kenya “Kinetics of metal pollutants biosorption in Lake Victoria and its Environs using  natural products biomass”(2016).

Ph.D. research work by Richard Mogwasi Reg. No. I80/26723/2013 (University of Nairobi) “speciation analysis of selected essential elements in selected medicinal plants from Nyamira County (Kenya) using AAS and ICP-MS (2016).

MSc. Research work by Kyalo Mutua G. on “The effect of organic amendments on the Degradation of Metribuzin and Chlorpyrifos in soils within Nzoia River Drainage  Basin”(2013).

MSc. Research work by Beatrice P. Onyango on “Assessing the impact of petroleum handling operations of international and independent petroleum companies on the environment in Nairobi district, Kenya (2013).

MSc. Research work by Nyaundi Joseph K. on “Risk assessment of the suitability of wastewater lagoon fish for human consumption: A case of Kisumu and Webuye Urban centers, Kenya” (2012).

MSc. Research work by Selly Kimosop  on “Study of dissipation characteristics of carbofuran, hexazinone, and atrazine in tropical soils and bioremediation using organic amendments” (2012).

Ph.D. research work by  Anastasiah Ngige Ngugi on “Isolation and identification of microbes in the degradation of some common herbicides used in the sugarcane fields in Kenya” ( 2011).

MSc. Research Project by M. F. Mbithi on “Enhanced biodegradation of some selected herbicides from those detected after screening in the Kenyan sugarcane fields” (2009).

MSc. Research Project by  O.G . Marende on “Determination of residue levels of persistent organic pesticides and organophosphates in soil, sediments and water samples in the Chemelil Sugarcane belt in Kenya (2007).

MSc. Research Project by  Keng’ara F.O. on “Pesticide residues analysis in Nyando Catchment of Lake Victoria and the fate studies of atrazine and glyphosate in soil using the radioisotope tracer techniques (2005)

University Newsletter


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